Turquoise

Colors: Pale Blue, Bright Blue, Blue Green. Hardness: 5 to 6 This opaque mineral forms in areas of hydrothermal disruption. The world’s finest sources of Turquoise are Iran and the southwestern United States. Jewelry-quality Turquoise comes in a range of blues with white, brown, or black mottling. Some Turquoise is porous and is treated with… Read more »

Tourmaline

Colors: Pink, Green, Blue, Maroon. Hardness: 7 – 7 1/2 Tourmaline forms in hexagonal prismatic crystals in metamorphic and igneous rocks and veins. The purplish-red variety, known as Rubellite, is the most valuables, but perhaps the gem of greatest interest is the so-called Watermelon Tourmaline with its green and pink crystals. Another variety is known… Read more »

Topaz

Colors: Colourless, Spring Green, Yellow, Orange Yellow, Dark Orange, Crimson, Pink, Blue. Hardness: 8 Topaz comes in a rainbow of colors and is generally found in igneous rocks. The finest specimens derive from North America, South America, and Eastern Europe. The prismatic crystals are frequently flawed and clean stones are not common. Topaz is faceted… Read more »

Tigereye

Colors: Yellow to Brown Stripes. Hardness: 7 Tiger eye is a member of the Quartz family. Inclusions of other minerals give it is distinctive golden and brown parallel streaking. It is mined in Austria and southwest Africa. Tiger eye is not suitable for faceting but is prized as a Cabochon or in the manufacture of Cameos…. Read more »

Tanzanite

Colors: Blue to Violet. Hardness: 6 to 6 1/2 Tanzanite is a member of the rare Zoisite family, and its occurrence is restricted to metamorphic rocks. It may be found only in Tanzania, East Africa. Its vivid blue colouration of Tanzanite is much sought after in the gem field and it is faceted for use… Read more »

Sunstones

Colors: White, Yellow, Apricot, Orange. Hardness: 6 Sunstone is the gem trade name for Oligoclase, a member of the Plagioclase Feldspar group. This is a gem which is quickly gaining popularity on account of its beautiful spectrum of sunshine colors. It is being mined in Finland and the United States and may be fashioned into… Read more »

Star Sapphires

Colors: Dark Blue with the White streak. Hardness: 9 Unlike the clear, faceted Sapphire, Star Sapphires are worked into Cabochons to display the reyed Star or Cat’s Eye like striation in the center of the gem. This effect is the result of tube-like inclusions within the stone. It forms in hexagonal prisms and may be… Read more »

Sapphires

Colors: Blue, Pink, Green, Violet, Grey, Yellow. Hardness: 9 The Sapphire is a prized gem in the family Corundum. It forms in hexagonal prisms and may be found in an extremely limited number of locations in the United States, including Montana and North Carolina. Though blue is the color most commonly associated with Sapphires, they… Read more »

Rubies

Colors: Red. Hardness: 9 The Ruby is the rarest gem in the family Corundum. It forms in hexagonal prisms and may be found in an extremely limited number of locations in the United States, including Montana and North Carolina. Its deep red color fetches highest prices in the jewelry arena and it may be either… Read more »

Quartz

Colors: Colourless, White, Purple, Pink, Yellow, Brown, Black, Milky, Striped. Hardness: 7 The Quartz family comprises a tremendous array of minerals, including Amethyst, Citrine, Rose Quartz, Smoky Quartz, Milky Quartz, Aventurine, Cat’s Eye, and Tigereye. It develops in many different environments and there are excellent sources throughout North America and the world. It is used… Read more »